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Great Ophthalmologist

Marshall Miller Parks (1918 - 2005 ) American paediatric ophthalmologist.

Marshall Miller Parks (1918 - 2005 ) American paediatric ophthalmologist.
• Parks is widely regarded as the father of paediatric ophthalmology.
• Medical degree in St. Louis Medical School
• Served in the American Navy during World War II.. After the war, he started
• Ophthalmic residency at the Illinois’ Great Lakes Naval Hospital.
• His studies into amblyopia and strabismus earned him world-wide reputation.
• He later practiced in the Children's Hospital in Washington, D.C and offered paediatric ophthalmology as a subspecialty.
• He is known for the Parks 3-step test. Which is designed to identify a paretic, vertically acting muscle by noting the eye with the hyperdeviation in the primary position, horizontal gazes and on forced head tilt to the right and the left.


Sir Stewart Duke-Elder
Sir Stewart Duke-Elder, a Scot, was a dominant force in British and international ophthalmology for more than a quarter of a century. He is best remembered as a talented and prolific writer and editor, producing seven volumes of Textbook of Ophthalmology and fifteen volumes of System of Ophthalmology, along with many other textbooks and scientific papers
that provided the educational foundation for most of the world’s ophthalmologists. This monumental contribution to medical literature earned him the title of Fellow of the Royal Society in England. In addition to his own writings, Duke-Elder served for many years as editor of British Journal of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmic Literature and he was instrumental in the formation and research direction of the Institute of Ophthalmology in London. He was knighted in 1933 and subsequently earned many more honors, serving as the Surgeon-Oculist to King Edward VIII, George V and the present Queen Elizabeth.

Dr. Kelman

Dr. Kelman was born in Brooklyn, New York, on May 23, 1930. After graduating from Forest Hills High School and Boston's Tufts University, he completed medical studies at the University of Geneva, Switzerland; an internship at Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn; and residency in ophthalmology at the Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia. He has been in private practice in New York City since 1960.
In 1962 Dr. Kelman devised the cryo-probe for cataract extraction.
In 1963 Dr. Kelman pioneered the use of freezing for the repair of retinal detachments. Retinal cryopexy remains a frequent adjunct in retinal surgery to this day.Kelman introduced phacoemulsification,in 1967,
In 1975 Dr. Kelman began designing lens implants for use in conjunction with cataract surgery;Neurosurgeons have adopted the Kelman phacoemulsification machine for use in dissecting tumors from delicate brain and spinal cord tissue in children. In this way, the device has saved hundreds of young lives.

At present, Charles D. Kelman, MD is working on several new projects, including artificial blood vessels, artificial corneas and a magnetic cataract extraction procedure that will retain the patient eye normal ability to focus on near and distant objects. Clinical professor of ophthalmology at New York Medical College, Dr. Kelman holds the position of attending surgeon at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. He is a consultant surgeon at many hospitals throughout the world.

Dr. Kelman has been the recipient of several prominent awards Special Recognition Award, the Ridley Medal by the International Congress of Ophthalmology, the First Innovators Award in Ophthalmology and received the Binkhorst Medal, both from the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, as well as the first recipient of the Outstanding Achievement Award for excellence in cataract surgery from the American Society of Contemporary Ophthalmology. He was awarded the "Inventor of the Year Award" by the New York Patent, Trademark and Copyright Law Association for his development of the Kelman phacoemulsification procedure. In June 1992, Dr. Kelman was awarded the Prestigious National Medal of Technology by President George H.W. Bush and at the International Congress on Cataract and Refractive Surgery in Montreal, Canada, Dr. Kelman was named "Ophthalmologist of the Century" for his pioneering work in phacoemulsification.

Dr. Kelman is immediate past president of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons. He has written hundreds of articles, papers and scientific books as well as a book for lay readers on cataracts and an autobiography entitled Through My Eyes (both from Crown Publishing). He continues to teach his surgical techniques while devoting his spare time to several new projects, including a musical, The Right Pair of Shoes, and an album that was released by Columbia Records.

Sir Harold Ridley


During World War II,Sir Harold Ridley observed that aviators could tolerate shards of PMMA aircraft canopies in their eyes. He used this knowledge to create and implant the first intraocular lens in a two-step procedure between 1949 and 1950. Three years later, he supervised the first IOL implantation in the U.S. and later served as the first president of the International Intra-Ocular Implant Club. Ridley’s cure for aphakia, once ridiculed by his peers, is now a routine part of cataract surgery. In addition to being the father of the intraocular lens, Ridley has also made important contributions to tropical medicine. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in England in 1986 for his contributions to science and is now retired in Salisbury, England.

Charles Schepens

The impact of Charles Schepens’ contributions is immense.... His strategy broadened and deepened the knowledge of the retina to a point that it became a subspecialty of its own. Because of his remarkable leadership he is revered as ‘The Father of Modern Retina Surgery.’  Born in Belgium, he served in the Belgian Air Force and the French Resistance during World War II. He was captured twice by the Gestapo, but survived to emigrate to the U.S. in 1947. Shortly thereafter, he established the Retina Foundation, now known as the Harvard-affiliated Schepens Eye Research Institute. It is the largest independent eye research organization in the U.S., a living legacy to the basic biomedical and clinical eye research Schepens thought so important. He invented the indirect binocular ophthalmoscope, which is now routinely used to view the retina. His devices and surgical techniques such as scleral buckling have been credited with raising the success rate of retinal reattachment surgery from 40% to 90%. Before his death in 2006, Schepens was a professor emeritus of Harvard University. He was the founder of Retina Associates in Boston, where he continued to practice until his death.

José Barraquer

José Barraquer, who came from a family that boasts four generations of prominent ophthalmologists, is widely acknowledged to be the father of refractive surgery. He was born in Spain, but moved in 1953 to Bogota, Colombia. There, he founded the Barraquer Institute of America, where he trained many of the refractive surgeons practicing around the world today. Barraquer promoted the improvement of suture material and technique in cataract and corneal surgery, and designed numerous surgical instruments,
many of which still carry his name. But his life’s work was dedicated to the idea of reshaping the cornea to change the eye’s refractive power. Toward this end, he designed the cryolathe and the microkeratome and developed keratomileusis and keratophakia, laying the groundwork for LASIK and other modern lamellar procedures. Barraquer continued to practice, invent
and teach until his death last year.

Edward Maumenee

Edward Maumenee, the son of an ophthalmologist from Mobile, Alabama, said once he wanted to become the best ophthalmologist in the world, and many believe he achieved that goal. In addition to being an extremely highly regarded cataract and corneal transplant surgeon, he also classified disorders of the macula, discovered an important immune response in the rejection of corneal tissue, and made pioneering contributions to the understanding and treatment of retinal malfunctions and glaucoma. Maumenee served as director of the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1955–1979 and was director emeritus until he died last year. He was instrumental in focusing national attention on the problem of blindness, in the formation of a national eye-banking system, and in the 1968 creation of the National Eye Institute at the National Institutes of Health. His role in the development of clinical and basic science in ophthalmology is of lasting importance.



Ramon Castroviejo

Ramon Castroviejo, the son of a Spanish ophthalmologist, came to the United States as a young man to do a fellowship at the
Mayo Clinic. He stayed on at New York’s Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, where he performed the world’s first successful human cornea transplant. Creating a rectangular rather than circular “window” in the cornea was the secret to his successful transplants. Although the medical community was slow to recognize his successes, Castroviejo was eventually lauded for his sight-saving corneal tissue transplant techniques, which he continued to refine and teach for many years. Castroviejo also promoted the donation of corneal tissue in the United States and designed numerous ophthalmic instruments.

 Lorenz Zimmerman

Born to German and Swiss immigrant parents in Washington, D.C., in 1920, Lorenz Zimmerman received his medical degree from George Washington University. His residency training at Walter Reed Army Hospital was interrupted by the Korean War,during which he commanded a mobile medical laboratory in Korea. Returning after the war to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, he pursued his first love, ophthalmic pathology, chairing the department for 29 years. As chairman, he developed training programs and encouraged young ophthalmologists to go into pathology. Zimmerman filled a void in ophthalmology and in so doing, greatly improved the understanding of eye disease. He continues to teach in the Washington area.

Donald Gass

Donald Gass came to the field of medicine almost by accident, but his contributions to ophthalmology have been vast. After receiving his medical degree from Vanderbilt University in 1957 and completing residencies in ophthalmology at the Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Gass became very excited about combining his interest in pathology with new techniques for viewing the fundus with the fundus camera and fluorescein angiography. He is well known for his research on diseases of the retina, macula and uvea, much of which was done in Miami. Gass continues to practice and is professor of ophthalmology at both the University of Miami School of Medicine and Vanderbilt University in Nashville.
  (Source:The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery)
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